What Is Transpersonal Psychotherapy

What Is Transpersonal Psychotherapy

Christina Manfredi

Clinical Psychotherapist; Psychological Counsellor

Transpersonal Psychotherapist, & Shamanic Psychotherapist

Somatic Experiencing; &  Sensorimotor Trauma Psychotherapist

Transpersonal Psychotherapy is inclusive of the human spirit, experiences of spirituality, the dimensions of consciousness, and ego focused psychology.

Transpersonal Psychotherapy originally came into recognition in the West in the 1960’s as a therapy that was regarded as the “fourth force” in psychology. It was specifically referred to as the “fourth force” as it was a therapy that was inclusive of the human spirit, experiences of spirituality, religious experiences, the dimensions of consciousness/altered states of consciousness, and ego focused psychology. As such it is regarded as a spiritual psychology.

The inclusiveness of the human spirit, spirituality, religion, and consciousness research beyond ego functioning,  therefore differentiated Transpersonal Psychotherapy from the first 3 theoretical orientations to psychology that included Psychoanalysis, Behavioural Psychology, and Humanism. This fourth force of psychology and psychotherapy is currently gaining more credibility. There is a growing  acceptance that a psychology method devoid of a transpersonal understanding is limiting and diminishing to the understanding of our true full human nature.

Transpersonal Psychotherapy differentiates between Spirituality, and Religion. Whilst organised religion is imbued with spiritual meaning, a person’s spiritual experiences may be completely separate from any religious faith. Smith in “The Tablet” (1996) clarifies the distinction of spirituality and religion as:

“Spirituality is the dimension of our being related to the physical and psychological dimension which gives our life meaning and calls us towards our higher self usually expressed as some form of relationship with a Divine being”.

My suggestion is that this would also include a relationship with an intelligent creative Universe.

“Religion (stated by Smith: 1996) is a particular framework….which includes a belief structure, a moral code, an authority structure and a form of worship, within which people find nourishment for the spiritual dimension of their lives”.

The distinction between spirituality and religion is an important distinction in Transpersonal Psychotherapy, as many individuals regularly encounter spiritual and mystical experiences outside of any religious order. For example a spiritual experience may happen in a moment of bitting into a fresh crisp apple where for a moment time appears to stand still and a feeling of unity emerges in the eternal present, it may happen through present moment connection with another where all separation is eliminated, in mediation, dance giving rise to moments of union and ecstasy, holotropic breath work, surfing/swimming, fasting, running, deep relaxation.  There are numerous ways in which a spiritual experience can emerge that is often deeply meaningful and healing for an individual.

Stanley Grof a contemporary figure in the Transpersonal movement states that the transpersonal experience “involve an expansion or extension of consciousness beyond the usual boundaries and the limitations of time and/or space”; and therefore beyond ego personality functioning. Grof has devoted his professional life to understanding the nature of spiritual experiences, and altered states of consciousness in holotropic breath work.

Lajoie & Shapiro (1992) define transpersonal psychology as “…concerned with the study of humanity’s highest potential, and with the recognition, understanding and realisation of unitive spiritual and transcendent states of consciousness.”

Walsh & Vaughan (1993) further describe the transpersonal phenomena or experience  as “the sense of identity of self extends beyond (‘trans) the individual or personality to encompass wider aspects of humankind, life, psyche, or cosmos”. Here again we see reference to an expanded feeling of of unity, interconnectedness, and a sense of identity that is expanded beyond the ego. The ego is the part of us that has been conditioned by culture, society, and family, and forms our everyday habituated personality.

Transpersonal Psychotherapy starts from the premise that views the human psyche as having an Essential Self, and consciousness that is connected to and part of the nature of the infinite unitive universe/cosmos. There is no separation, and because there is no separation many experiences arise that are not solely within the domain of our rational cognitive functioning.

From this perspective consciousness is regarded as not purely a brain process, but it is a broader inter-related field process that does involve the brain and human nervous system and yet is beyond the physical brain. This rests upon the theory that consciousness and spirit pervade all of life as an intelligent force of creation involving atoms, molecules, quarks, superstring vibrations, and preons all inter-related and communicating.

The scientific research untaken by Bohm’s theory of Whole and Implicate Order findings, Field Theory, and research in non-local consciousness, along with research in ancient wisdom and spiritual approaches are all implicit in a Transpersonal Psychotherapy approach.

In fundamentally acknowledging the significant role of the human spirit and consciousness in supporting the healing of human distress, transpersonal psychotherapy explores experiences of altered states of consciousness/Being, near death experiences, mystical, religious, and paranormal experiences, visions and dreams, synchronistic experiences, deeper intuitions, experiences of ESP; PSI,  and past lives. It has also investigates meditation, shamanic journeying, prayer, contemplative practices, vision questing, active imagination, distant healing, consciousness and the biology of beliefs, hypnosis, and exceptional human abilities.

In conclusion, at the heart of a Transpersonal Psychotherapy practice is integration of time honoured spiritual wisdom practices and experiences, with the latest science of consciousness, and psychology. Transpersonal Psychotherapy is a holistic encompassing approach to our humanity. It respects the multifaceted aspects of our experiences, many of which some people find difficult to speak about in conventional psychological therapy.

A trained Transpersonal Therapist can offer a facilitated exploration of your essential nature and broader consciousness and spiritual experiences with a deep understanding, and without judgement.

Please contact Christina on 0422 648 234 (please text) or email christina.manfredi@iinet.net.au if you wish to explore a Transpersonal approach to therapy.


Article Author: Christina Manfredi


Bohm, D (1980) Wholeness and Implicate Order: Routledge & Kegan; New York

Keutzer (1982) Physics and Consciousness: Journal of Humanistic Psychology Vol.22

Porter, S. E, & Hayes, M, & Tombs, D (2001) Faith In The Mellennium

Grof, S: online @ www.stanislavgrof.com

Smith, A (1996) cited in Porter, S. E, & Hayes, M, & Tombs, D (2001) Faith In The Mellennium

Walsh, R and F. Vaughan (1993) Paths Beyond Ego: The Transpersonal Vision

Walsh, R and F. Vaughan (1993). On transpersonal definitions. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology. Vol. 25, No2, pp. 199-207